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  1. Hello, I created a block diagram that has a axi_gpio_0 block, as you can see in my image. Below is most of my constraint file. My diagram synthesizes, implements and generates a bitstream. I was able to get into SDK with no problems. I am stuck in SDK now. Goal: I am just trying to blink an LED (gpio_io_o[4]) using one of the the example code projects shown in system.mss file. I chose the "xgpio_example.c"; first on the list. The example code has these lines: #define LED 0x01 and #define LED_CHANNEL 1. This code should just simply blink an LED. I am not sure if LED_CHANNEL is channel "1", or what "LED_CHANNEL" means in the code. Using these original settings my LED did not blink or light up at all. Looking at my constraint file, you will see that I am using gpio_io_o[4] and gpio_io_o[5] for my LEDs, so I changed the first line to #define LED 0x04. This had no effect. I tried everything I could think of. For example, I tried making a change like this: #define LED_CHANNEL 4, but this had no effect. I tried many combinations of things. Using the oscilloscope, I looked at all of the pins on the PMOD connector, but nothing is active. I'm sure I programmed the FPGA and code correctly since the processes went smoothly. I'm trying to avoid using any IP blocks other than the built in axi_gpio blocks. Those IP blocks from example code do not TEACH us anything and are rather useless in that regard. I've looked all over, but cannot find a working version of "BLINKY" code (which is fairly standard in MCU and Microprocessor examples). Can someone please point out a decent GPIO tutorial that actually works? Here is a sample of the code: XGpio_SetDataDirection(&Gpio, LED_CHANNEL, ~LED); The "LED_CHANNEL" AND ~LED parameters are confusing. Why is LED inverted? For example, if LED = 0x01, then ~LED = 0xfffffffe. Why? Thank you, Richard V My constraint file: # LEDs set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN A17 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { gpio_io_o[4] }]; #led[0] }]; #IO_L12N_T1_MRCC_16 Sch=led[1] set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN C16 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { gpio_io_o[5] }]; #led[1] }]; #IO_L13P_T2_MRCC_16 Sch=led[2] Here are my other GPIO bits: #OLED set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN G17 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { spi_0_ss_io[0] }]; #CS #IO_L5N_T0_D07_14 Sch=ja[1] set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN G19 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { spi_0_io0_io }]; #MOSI #IO_L4N_T0_D05_14 Sch=ja[2] set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN N18 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { spi_0_io1_io }]; #MISO #IO_L9P_T1_DQS_14 Sch=ja[3] set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN L18 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { spi_0_sck_io }]; #SCK #IO_L8P_T1_D11_14 Sch=ja[4] set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN H17 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { gpio_io_o[0] }]; #DC #IO_L5P_T0_D06_14 Sch=ja[7] set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN H19 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { gpio_io_o[1] }]; #RES #IO_L4P_T0_D04_14 Sch=ja[8] set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN J19 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { gpio_io_o[2] }]; #VBAT #IO_L6N_T0_D08_VREF_14 Sch=ja[9] set_property -dict { PACKAGE_PIN K18 IOSTANDARD LVCMOS33 } [get_ports { gpio_io_o[3] }]; #VDDC #IO_L8N_T1_D12_14 Sch=ja[10] This is an excerpt from the example code and was generated by SDK: #include "xparameters.h" #include "xgpio.h" /************************** Constant Definitions *****************************/ #define LED 0x01 /* Assumes bit 0 of GPIO is connected to an LED */ /* The following constants map to the XPAR parameters created in the * xparameters.h file. They are defined here such that a user can easily * change all the needed parameters in one place. */ #define GPIO_EXAMPLE_DEVICE_ID XPAR_GPIO_0_DEVICE_ID /* * The following constant is used to wait after an LED is turned on to make * sure that it is visible to the human eye. This constant might need to be * tuned for faster or slower processor speeds. */ #define LED_DELAY 1000000 /* * The following constant is used to determine which channel of the GPIO is * used for the LED if there are 2 channels supported. */ #define LED_CHANNEL 1 /**************************** Type Definitions *******************************/ * The purpose of this function is to illustrate how to use the GPIO * driver to turn on and off an LED.* * @param None ** @return XST_FAILURE to indicate that the GPIO Initialization had * failed. ** @note This function will not return if the test is running. * ******************************************************************************/ int main(void) { u32 Data; int Status; volatile int Delay; /* Initialize the GPIO driver */ Status = XGpio_Initialize(&Gpio, GPIO_EXAMPLE_DEVICE_ID); if (Status != XST_SUCCESS) { return XST_FAILURE; } /* Set the direction for all signals as inputs except the LED output */ XGpio_SetDataDirection(&Gpio, LED_CHANNEL, ~LED); design_spi_oled.pdf